Friday, July 3, 2015

Phoenix, Arizona

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Phoenix, Arizona
State capital
City of Phoenix
Images, from top, left to right: Papago Park at sunset, Saint Mary's Basilica, Downtown Phoenix, Phoenix skyline at night, Arizona Science Center, Rosson House, the light rail, a saguaro cactus, and the McDowell Mountains
Images, from top, left to right: Papago Park at sunset, Saint Mary's Basilica, Downtown Phoenix, Phoenix skyline at night, Arizona Science Center, Rosson House, the light rail, a saguaro cactus, and the McDowell Mountains
Flag of Phoenix, Arizona
Flag
Official seal of Phoenix, Arizona
Seal
Nickname(s): "Valley of the Sun", "The Valley"
Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona
Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona
Phoenix, Arizona is located in USA
Phoenix, Arizona
Phoenix, Arizona
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 33°27′N 112°04′WCoordinates: 33°27′N 112°04′W
Country  United States of America
State  Arizona
County Maricopa
Incorporated February 5, 1881
Government
 • Type Council-Manager
 • Body Phoenix City Council
 • Mayor Greg Stanton
Area
 • City 517.948 sq mi (1,338.26 km2)
 • Land 516.704 sq mi (1,338.26 km2)
 • Water 1.244 sq mi (3.22 km2)
 • Metro 14,565.76 sq mi (37,725.1 km2)
Elevation[1] 1,086 ft (331 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • City 1,445,632
 • Estimate (2014)[3] 1,537,058
 • Rank US: 6th
 • Density 2,797.8/sq mi (1,080.2/km2)
 • Urban 3,629,114 (US: 12th)
 • Metro 4,489,109 (US: 12th)
 • Demonym Phoenician
Time zone MST (UTC−7)
 • Summer (DST) no DST/PDT (UTC−7)
ZIP codes 85001–85099
Area code(s) 480, 602, 623
FIPS code 04-55000
GNIS ID(s) 44784, 2411414
Major airport Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport – PHX (Major/International)
Website www.phoenix.gov
Phoenix (/ˈfnɪks/) is the capital, and largest city, of the state of Arizona. With 1,445,632 people (as of the 2010 U.S. Census), Phoenix is the most populous state capital in the United States, as well as the sixth most populous city nationwide.[4]
Phoenix is the anchor of the Phoenix metropolitan area, also known as the Valley of the Sun, which in turn is a part of the Salt River Valley. The city is the 13th largest metro area by population in the United States, with approximately 4.3 million people in 2010.[5][6] In addition, Phoenix is the county seat of Maricopa County and is one of the largest cities in the United States by land area.[7]
Settled in 1867 as an agricultural community near the confluence of the Salt and Gila Rivers, Phoenix incorporated as a city in 1881.[8] Located in the northeastern reaches of the Sonoran Desert, Phoenix has a subtropical desert climate. Despite this, its canal system led to a thriving farming community, many of the original crops remaining important parts of the Phoenix economy for decades, such as alfalfa, cotton, citrus and hay (which was important for the cattle industry).[9][10] In fact, the "Five C's" (Cotton, Cattle, Citrus, Climate, and Copper), remained the driving forces of Phoenix's economy until after World War II, when high tech industries began to move into the valley.[11][12]
The population growth rate of the Phoenix metro area has been nearly 4% per year for the past 40 years. While that growth rate slowed during the Great Recession, it has already begun to rebound. Phoenix is the cultural center of the Valley of the Sun, as well as the rest of Arizona.

History

For more details on this topic, see History of Phoenix, Arizona.

Early history

Map portraying ancestral Hohokam lands circa 1350
Map of Hohokam lands ca. 1350
For more than 2,000 years, the Hohokam peoples occupied the land that would become Phoenix.[8][13] The Hohokam created roughly 135 miles (217 km) of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable. Paths of these canals would later become used for the modern Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, and the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct. The Hohokam also carried out extensive trade with the nearby Anasazi, Mogollon and Sinagua, as well as with the more distant Mesoamerican civilizations.[14] It is believed that between 1300 and 1450, periods of drought and severe floods led to the Hohokam civilization's abandonment of the area.[15] Local Akimel O'odham settlements, thought to be the descendants of the formerly urbanized Hohokam, concentrated on the Gila River.[16][17]
When the Mexican-American War ended in 1848, Mexico sold its northern zone to the United States and residents became U.S. citizens. The Phoenix area became part of the New Mexico Territory.[18] In 1863 the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in what is now Maricopa County, to the north-west of modern Phoenix. At the time Maricopa County had not yet been incorporated: the land was within Yavapai County, which included the major town of Prescott to the north of Wickenburg.
The U.S. Army created Fort McDowell on the Verde River in 1865 to forestall Native American uprisings.[19] The fort established a camp on the south side of the Salt River by 1866, which was the first non-native settlement in the valley after the decline of the Hohokam. In later years, other nearby settlements would form and merge to become the city of Tempe,[20] but this community was incorporated after Phoenix.

Founding and incorporation

The Phillip Darrell Duppa adobe house was built in 1870 and is the oldest known house in Phoenix. The homestead of "Lord" Darrell Duppa, an Englishman who is credited with naming Phoenix and Tempe as well as founding the town of New River.
The history of the city of Phoenix begins with Jack Swilling, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War. In 1867 he saw in the Salt River Valley a potential for farming, much like that already cultivated by the military further east, near Fort McDowell. He formed a small community that same year about 4 miles (6 km) east of the present city. Lord Darrell Duppa suggested the name "Phoenix", as it described a city born from the ruins of a former civilization.[8][21]
The Board of Supervisors in Yavapai County, which at the time encompassed Phoenix, officially recognized the new town on May 4, 1868, and the first post office was established the following month, with Swilling as the postmaster.[8] On February 12, 1871, the territorial legislature created Maricopa County, the sixth one formed in the Arizona Territory, by dividing Yavapai County. The first election for county office was held in 1871, when Tom Barnum was elected the first sheriff, actually running unopposed when the other two candidates, John A. Chenowth and Jim Favorite, fought a duel wherein Chenowth killed Favorite, and then was forced to withdraw from the race.[8]
The town grew during the 1870s, and President Ulysses S. Grant issued a land patent for the present site of Phoenix on April 10, 1874. By 1875, the town had a telegraph office, sixteen saloons, and four dance halls, but the townsite-commissioner form of government needed an overhaul, so that year an election was held in which three village trustees as well as several other officials were selected.[8] By 1880, the town's population stood at 2,453.[21]
A lithograph showing an aerial view of Phoenix in 1885
Aerial lithograph of Phoenix from 1885
By 1881, Phoenix' continued growth made the existing village structure with a board of trustees obsolete. The Territorial Legislature passed "The Phoenix Charter Bill", incorporating Phoenix and providing for a mayor-council government, and became official on February 25, 1881 when it was signed by Governor John C. Fremont, officially incorporating Phoenix as a city with an approximate population of 2,500.[8]
The coming of the railroad in the 1880s was the first of several important events that revolutionized the economy of Phoenix. Phoenix became a trade center, with its products reaching eastern and western markets. In response, the Phoenix Chamber of Commerce was organized on November 4, 1888.[22] Earlier in 1888 the city offices were moved into the new City Hall, at Washington and Central.[8] When the territorial capital was moved from Prescott to Phoenix in 1889 the temporary territorial offices were also located in City Hall.[21] With the arrival of the Santa Fe, Prescott and Phoenix Railroad in 1895, Phoenix was connected to the Prescott, Flagstaff and other northern state communities. The increased access to commerce, expedited the city's economic rise. The year 1895 also saw the establishment of Phoenix Union High School, with an enrollment of 90.[8]

1900 to World War II

Aerial view of Central Avenue in Phoenix in 1908.
Central Avenue, Phoenix, 1908
FIAV historical.svg The former city flag of Phoenix, adopted in November 1921.
On February 25, 1901, Governor Murphy dedicated the permanent state Capitol building,[8] and the Carnegie Free Library opened seven years later, on February 18, 1908, dedicated by Benjamin Fowler.[21] The National Reclamation Act was signed by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1902, which allowed for dams to be built on waterways in the west for reclamation purposes.[23] The first dam constructed under the act, the Theodore Roosevelt Dam began in 1903. It supplied both water and electricity, becoming the first multi-purpose dam, and Roosevelt himself would attend the official dedication on May 18, 1911. At the time, it was the largest masonry dam in the world, forming Theodore Roosevelt Lake in the mountain east of Phoenix.[24]
On February 14, 1912, under President William Howard Taft, Phoenix became the capital of the newly formed state of Arizona.[24] This occurred just six months after Taft had vetoed in August 1911, a joint congressional resolution granting statehood to Arizona, due to his disagreement of the state constitution's position regarding the recall of judges.[23] In 1913 Phoenix adopted a new form of government, changing from a mayor-council system to council-manager, making it one of the first cities in the United States with this form of city government. After statehood, Phoenix's growth started to accelerate, and by the end of its first eight years under statehood, Phoenix' population had grown to 29,053. In 1920 Phoenix would see its first skyscraper, the Heard Building.[8] In 1929 Sky Harbor was officially opened, at the time owned by Scenic Airways. It would later be purchased by the city in 1935, who operates it to this day.[25]
Photo of the skyline of downtown Phoenix circa 1940
Phoenix skyline – ca. 1940
On March 4, 1930, former U.S. President Calvin Coolidge dedicated a dam on the Gila River named in his honor. However, the state had just been through a long drought, and the reservoir which was supposed to be behind the dam, was virtually dry. The humorist Will Rogers, who was also on hand as a guest speaker joked, "If that was my lake I'd mow it."[23] Phoenix's population had more than doubled during the 1920s, and now stood at 48,118.[8]
During World War II, Phoenix's economy shifted to that of a distribution center, rapidly turning into an embryonic industrial city with mass production of military supplies. There were 3 air force fields in the area: Luke Field, Williams Field, and Falcon Field, as well as two large pilot training camps, Thunderbird Field No. 1 in Glendale and Thunderbird Field No. 2 in Scottsdale.[8][26][27]

Postwar explosive growth

A town that had just over sixty-five thousand residents in 1940 became America's sixth largest city by 2010, with a population of nearly 1.5 million, and millions more in nearby suburbs. Shermer argues that after the war Phoenix boosters led by Barry Goldwater and other ambitious young businessmen and politicians, often with an Eastern education, created a neoliberal pro-business climate. They attracted Eastern industry by rejecting the New Deal formula of strong labor unions and tight regulation of industry. They told prospects that Phoenix had excellent weather, cheap land, good transportation, low-wage rates, a right-to-work law that weakened unions, minimal regulations, easy access to the West Coast markets, and an eagerness to grow. They pointed out it was highly attractive place for young couples to raise their families. Hundreds of manufacturing firms were attracted to Phoenix, especially those that emphasized high technology, along with corporate headquarters. Shermer argues that the Phoenix plan was widely admired by other ambitious cities in the South and Southwest, and became part of national conservatism as exemplified by Goldwater and his supporters. The Phoenix plan was not built on libertarian low-government ideals. Rather, Shermer argues, it involved active government intervention in the economy to promote rapid growth. For example the state played the central role in giving Phoenix a guaranteed water supply, as well as good universities.[28]
When the war ended, many of the men who had undergone their training in Arizona returned bringing their new families. Large industry, learning of this labor pool, started to move branches here.[12] In 1948 high-tech industry, which would become a staple of the state's economy, arrived in Phoenix when Motorola chose Phoenix for the site of its new research and development center for military electronics. Seeing the same advantages as Motorola, other high-tech companies such as Intel and McDonnell Douglas would also move into the valley and open manufacturing operations.[12]
By 1950, over 105,000 people lived within the city and thousands more in surrounding communities.[8] The 1950s growth was spurred on by advances in air conditioning, which allowed both homes and businesses to offset the extreme heat experienced in Phoenix and the surrounding areas during its long summers. There was more new construction in Phoenix in 1959 alone than during the period of more than thirty years from 1914 to 1946.[12][29]

The 1960s through current

Phoenix in 1972
Over the next several decades, the city and metropolitan area attracted more growth and became a favored tourist destination for its exotic desert setting and recreational opportunities. In 1960 the Phoenix Corporate Center opened; at the time it was the tallest building in Arizona, topping off at 341 feet.[30] The 1960s saw many other buildings constructed as the city expanded rapidly, including: the Rosenzweig Center (1964), today called Phoenix City Square,[31] the landmark Phoenix Financial Center (1964),[32] as well as many of Phoenix's residential high-rises. In 1965 the Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum was opened on the grounds of the Arizona State Fair, west of downtown, and in 1968, the city was surprisingly awarded the Phoenix Suns NBA franchise,[33][34] which played its home games at the Coliseum until 1992.[35] In 1968, the Central Arizona Project was approved by President Lyndon B. Johnson, assuring future water supplies for Phoenix, Tucson, and the agricultural corridor in between.[36] The following year, Pope Paul VI created the Diocese of Phoenix on December 2, by splitting the Archdiocese of Tucson, with Edward A. McCarthy as the first Bishop.[37]
In the 1970s the downtown area experienced a resurgence, with a level of construction activity not seen again until the urban real estate boom of the 2000s. By the end of the decade, Phoenix adopted the Phoenix Concept 2000 plan which split the city into urban villages, each with its own village core where greater height and density was permitted, further shaping the free-market development culture. Originally, there were 9 villages,[38] but this has been expanded to 15 over the years (see Cityscape below). This officially turned Phoenix into a city of many nodes, which would later be connected by freeways. 1972 would see the opening of the Phoenix Symphony Hall,[39] Other major structures which saw construction downtown during this decade were the Wells Fargo Plaza, the Chase Tower (the tallest building in both Phoenix and Arizona)[40] and the U.S. Bank Center.
Nominated by President Reagan, on September 25, 1981 Phoenix resident Sandra Day O'Connor broke the gender barrier on the U.S. Supreme Court, when she was sworn in as the first female judge.[41] 1985 saw the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, the nation's largest nuclear power plant, begin electrical production.[42] 1987 was marked by visits by both Pope John Paul II and Mother Teresa.[43]
Recent photo of downtown Phoenix lit up at night
Downtown Phoenix at night
There was an influx of refugees due to low-cost housing in the Sunnyslope area in the 1990s, resulting in 43 different languages being spoken in local schools by the year 2000.[44] The new 20-story City Hall opened in 1992,[45] and 1993 saw the creation of "Tent City" by Sheriff Joe Arpaio, using inmate labor, to alleviate overcrowding in the Maricopa County Jail system, the fourth-largest in the world.[46] The famous "Phoenix Lights" UFO sightings took place in March 1997.
Phoenix has maintained a growth streak in recent years, growing by 24.2% before 2007. This made it the second-fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States, surpassed only by Las Vegas.[47] In 2008, Squaw Peak, the second tallest mountain in the city, was renamed Piestewa Peak after Army Specialist Lori Ann Piestewa, an Arizonan and the first Native American woman to die in combat while serving in the U.S. military, as well as being the first American female casualty of the 2003 Iraq War.[48] 2008 also saw Phoenix as one of the cities hardest hit by the subprime mortgage crisis, and by early 2009 the median home price was $150,000, down from its $262,000 peak in 2007.[49] Crime rates in Phoenix have gone down in recent years, and once troubled, decaying neighborhoods such as South Mountain, Alhambra, and Maryvale have recovered and stabilized. Recently, downtown Phoenix and the central core have experienced renewed interest and growth, resulting in numerous restaurants, stores, and businesses opening or relocating to central Phoenix.[50]

Geography

A photo taken from space of the Phoenix Area
Landsat 7 satellite image of the Phoenix metro area in 2002
Phoenix is in the southwestern United States, in the south-central portion of Arizona, and about halfway between Tucson to the south and Flagstaff to the north. The metropolitan area is known as the "Valley of the Sun", due to its location in the Salt River Valley. It lies at a mean elevation of 1,117 feet (340 m), in the northern reaches of the Sonoran Desert.[51][52]
A photo showing the skyline of Phoenix, looking north.  It shows the various buildings of the downtown area, as well as Sunnyslope Mountain in the background
Northern skyline, downtown Phoenix, Sunnyslope Mountain clearly visible in background
Other than the mountains in and around the city, the topography of Phoenix is generally flat, allowing the city's main streets to run on a precise grid with wide, open-spaced roadways. Scattered, low mountain ranges surround the valley: McDowell Mountains to the northeast, the White Tank Mountains to the west, the Superstition Mountains far to the east, and the Sierra Estrella to the southwest. On the outskirts of Phoenix are large fields of irrigated cropland and several Indian reservations.[22][51][53] The Salt River runs westward through the city of Phoenix, and the riverbed is often dry or contains a little water due to large irrigation diversions. The community of Ahwatukee is separated from the rest of the city by South Mountain.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 517.9 square miles (1,341 km2); 516.7 square miles (1,338 km2) of it is land and 1.2 square miles (0.6 km², or 0.2%) of it is water. Even though it is the 6th most populated city, the large area gives it a low density rate of approximately 2,797 people per square mile.[54] In comparison, Philadelphia, the 5th most populous city has a density of over 11,000.[55]
As with most of Arizona, Phoenix does not observe daylight saving time. In 1973, Gov. Jack Williams argued to the U.S. Congress that due to air conditioning units not being used as often in the morning on standard time, energy use would increase in the evening. He went on to say that energy use would rise "because there would be more lights on in the early morning." He was also concerned about children going to school in the dark, which was quite accurate.[56]

Cityscape

aerial view of the Phoenix skyline, showing the tall buildings of downtown Phoenix to the left of the photo, mountains in the background, the flatness of the rest of the city, with Sky Harbor airport
A panoramic view of Phoenix from the South Mountain range, winter 2008, with Sky Harbor International Airport on the far right.
Phoenix Skyline from South Mountain at Night - 2010

Neighborhoods

tall buildings of downtown Phoenix, with the mountains to the north in the background, centering on Camelback mountain.
Downtown Phoenix skyline looking northeast toward Camelback Mountain
a graphic representation showing how Phoenix is broken up into 15 urban villages
Map of the urban villages of Phoenix
a photo of the reds and oranges of a sunset over the skyline of Phoenix, as seen from Papago park.
Phoenix sunset from Papago Park – 2010
Since 1979, the City of Phoenix has been divided into urban villages, many of which are based upon historically significant neighborhoods and communities that have since been annexed into Phoenix.[57][58] Each village has a planning committee that is appointed directly by the city council. According to the village planning handbook issued by the city, the purpose of the village planning committees is to work with the city's planning commission to ensure a balance of housing and employment in each village, concentrate development at identified village cores, and to promote the unique character and identity of the villages.[59]
The 15 urban villages are:
Note: the urban village of Paradise Valley is different than the nearby town of Paradise Valley. Although the urban village is part of Phoenix City, the town is independent.
In addition to the above urban villages, Phoenix has a variety of commonly referred-to regions and districts, such as Downtown, Midtown, West Phoenix, North Phoenix, South Phoenix, Biltmore, Arcadia, and Sunnyslope.

1 comment:

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