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|Owner(s)||The New York Times Company|
|Founder(s)||Henry Jarvis Raymond
|Publisher||Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.|
|Managing editors||John M. Geddes|
|News editor||Richard L. Berke|
|Opinion editor||Andrew Rosenthal|
|Sports editor||Tom Jolly|
|Photo editor||Michele McNally|
|Staff writers||1,150 news department staff |
|Headquarters||The New York Times Building
620 Eighth Avenue
New York City, United States
(incl. 1,133,923 digital)
The paper's print version remains the largest metropolitan newspaper in the United States and second-largest newspaper overall, behind The Wall Street Journal. It is ranked 39th in the world by circulation. Following industry trends, its weekday circulation has fallen to fewer than one million daily since 1990. Nicknamed for years as "The Gray Lady", The New York Times is long regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record". It is owned by The New York Times Company. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr., (whose family (Ochs-Sulzberger) has controlled the paper for five generations, since 1896), is both the paper's publisher and the company's chairman. Its international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the International New York Times.
The paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Its website has adapted it to "All the News That's Fit to Click". Since the mid-1970s, it has greatly expanded its lay-out and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials, sports and features. Recently it has been organized into sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/"Op-Ed", "New York" (metropolitan), "Business", "Sports of The Times", "Arts", "Science", "Styles", "Home", and other features. On Sunday, it is supplemented by sections of "The Week in Review", "The New York Times Book Review" and "The New York Times Magazine" and recently "T", the Style magazine. "The Times" stayed with the "broadsheet" full page set-up (as some others have changed into a tabloid lay-out) and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, and was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography, especially on the front page.
HistoryHenry Jarvis Raymond, (1820-1869), then a Whig Party member and later second chairman of the newly organized Republican Party National Committee, and former banker George Jones. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release:
We shall be "Conservative", in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good;—and we shall be Radical in everything which may seem to us to require radical treatment and radical reform. We do not believe that "everything" in Society is either exactly right or exactly wrong;—what is good we desire to preserve and improve;—what is evil, to exterminate, or reform.The newspaper shortened its name to "The New-York Times" in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s. On April 21, 1861, "The New York Times" departed from its original Monday–Saturday publishing schedule and joined other major dailies in adding a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone.
The main office of "The Times" was attacked during the New York Draft Riots sparked by the beginning of military conscription for the Northern Union Army now instituted in the midst of the Civil War on July 13, 1863. At "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond, owner and editor of "The New York Times", averted the rioters with "Gatling" (early machine, rapid-firing) guns, one of which he manned himself. The mob now diverted, instead attacked the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's "New York Tribune" until forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
William Magear ("Boss") Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" (from its early 19th Century meeting headquarters) — that led to the end of the "Tweed Ring's" domination of New York's City Hall. In the 1880s, "The New York Times" transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical; in 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland (former Mayor of Buffalo and Governor of New York State in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost "The Times" ' readership among its more conservative, business-oriented, upper-class readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years and slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under its new later owner/publisher's philosophies, Adolph Ochs of Chattanooga, Tennessee. "The New York Times" was acquired by Adolph Ochs, publisher of the "Chattanooga Times", in 1896. The following year, he coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print", which was printed in a box in the upper right hand corner of the front page for the next 120 years; this was a jab at competing papers such as Joseph Pulitzer's "New York World" and William Randolph Hearst's "New York Journal" which were now being known for a lurid, sensationalist and often inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions known by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs guidance, continuing and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, (which were from the era of James Gordon Bennett of the "New York Herald" which predated Pulitzer and Hearst's arrival in New York), "The New York Times" achieved international scope, circulation, and reputation. In 1904, "The Times" received the first on-the-spot wireless telegraph transmission from a naval battle, a report of the destruction of the Imperial Russian Navy's Baltic Fleet at the Battle of Port Arthur in the Straits of Tsushima off the eastern coast of Korea in the Yellow Sea in the western Pacific Ocean after just sailing across the globe from Europe from the press-boat "Haimun" during the Russo-Japanese War (one of the most important and history-changing naval battles in history). In 1910, the first air delivery of "The New York Times" to Philadelphia began. The New York Times ' first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible. In 1920, a "4 A.M. Airplane Edition" was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening.
crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the fashion section in 1946. The New York Times began an international edition in 1946. The international edition stopped publishing in 1967, when The New York Times joined the owners of the New York Herald Tribune and The Washington Post to publish the International Herald Tribune in Paris. The paper bought a classical radio station (WQXR) in 1946. In addition to owning WQXR, the newspaper also formerly owned its AM sister, WQEW (1560 AM). The classical music radio format was simulcast on both frequencies until the early 1990s, when the big-band and standards music format of WNEW-AM (now WBBR) moved from 1130 AM to 1560. The AM radio station changed its call letters from WQXR to WQEW. By the beginning of the 21st century, The New York Times was leasing WQEW to ABC Radio for its Radio Disney format, which continues on 1560 AM. Disney became the owner of WQEW in 2007. On July 14, 2009, it was announced that WQXR was to be sold to WNYC, who on October 8, 2009, moved the station to 105.9 FM and began to operate the station as a non-commercial.
USA Today and The Wall Street Journal. The newspaper is owned by The New York Times Company, in which descendants of Adolph Ochs, principally the Sulzberger family, maintain a dominant role. In 2009, article circulation dropped 7.3 percent to about 928,000; this is the first time since the 1980s that it has fallen under one million.As of December 26, 2010[dead link], the paper reported a circulation of 906,100 copies on weekdays and 1,356,800 copies on Sundays. In the New York City metropolitan area, the paper costs $2.50 Monday through Saturday and $5 on Sunday. The New York Times has won 112 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper.
In 2009, the newspaper began production of local inserts in regions outside of the New York area. Beginning October 16, 2009, a two-page "Bay Area" insert was added to copies of the Northern California edition on Fridays and Sundays. The newspaper commenced production of a similar Friday and Sunday insert to the Chicago edition on November 20, 2009. The inserts consist of local news, policy, sports, and culture pieces, usually supported by local advertisements.
In addition to its New York City headquarters, the newspaper has 10 news bureaus in the New York region, 11 national news bureaus and 26 foreign news bureaus. The New York Times reduced its page width to 12 inches (300 mm) from 13.5 inches (340 mm) on August 6, 2007, adopting the width that has become the U.S. newspaper industry standard.
Because of its steadily declining sales attributed to the rise of online alternative media and social media, the newspaper has been going through a downsizing for several years, offering buyouts to workers and cutting expenses, in common with a general trend among print news media.
The newspaper's first building was located at 113 Nassau Street in New York City. In 1854, it moved to 138 Nassau Street, and in 1858, it moved to 41 Park Row, making it the first newspaper in New York City housed in a building built specifically for its use.
The paper moved its headquarters to the Times Tower, located at 1475 Broadway in 1904, in an area called Longacre Square, that was later renamed Times Square in honor of the newspaper. The top of the building – now known as One Times Square – is the site of the New Year's Eve tradition of lowering a lighted ball, that was started by the paper. The building is also notable for its electronic news ticker – popularly known as "The Zipper" – where headlines crawled around the outside of the building. It is still in use, but is now operated by the Reuters news agency. After nine years in its Times Square tower, the newspaper had an Annex built at 229 West 43rd Street. After several expansions, the 43rd Street building became the newspaper's main headquarters in 1960 and the Times Tower on Broadway was sold the following year. It served as the newspaper's main printing plant until 1997, when the newspaper opened a state-of-the-art printing plant in the College Point section of the borough of Queens.
A decade later, The New York Times moved its newsroom and businesses headquarters from West 43rd Street to a gleaming new tower at 620 Eighth Avenue between West 40th and 41st Streets, in Manhattan – directly across Eighth Avenue from the Port Authority Bus Terminal. The new headquarters for the newspaper, known officially as The New York Times Building but unofficially called the new "Times Tower" by many New Yorkers, is a skyscraper designed by Renzo Piano.
New York Times v. Sullivan
Main article: New York Times Co. v. SullivanThe paper's involvement in a 1964 libel case helped bring one of the key United States Supreme Court decisions supporting freedom of the press, New York Times Co. v. Sullivan. In it, the United States Supreme Court established the "actual malice" standard for press reports about public officials or public figures to be considered defamatory or libelous. The malice standard requires the plaintiff in a defamation or libel case prove the publisher of the statement knew the statement was false or acted in reckless disregard of its truth or falsity. Because of the high burden of proof on the plaintiff, and difficulty in proving what is inside a person's head, such cases by public figures rarely succeed.
The Pentagon Papers
Main article: Pentagon PapersIn 1971, the Pentagon Papers, a secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political and military involvement in the Vietnam War from 1945 to 1967, were given ("leaked") to Neil Sheehan of The New York Times by former State Department official Daniel Ellsberg, with his friend Anthony Russo assisting in copying them. The New York Times began publishing excerpts as a series of articles on June 13. Controversy and lawsuits followed. The papers revealed, among other things, that the government had deliberately expanded its role in the war by conducting air strikes over Laos, raids along the coast of North Vietnam, and offensive actions taken by U.S. Marines well before the public was told about the actions, all while President Lyndon B. Johnson had been promising not to expand the war. The document increased the credibility gap for the U.S. government, and hurt efforts by the Nixon administration to fight the on-going war.
When The New York Times began publishing its series, President Richard Nixon became incensed. His words to National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger included "People have gotta be put to the torch for this sort of thing..." and "Let's get the son-of-a-bitch in jail." After failing to get The New York Times to stop publishing, Attorney General John Mitchell and President Nixon obtained a federal court injunction that The New York Times cease publication of excerpts. The newspaper appealed and the case began working through the court system. On June 18, 1971, The Washington Post began publishing its own series. Ben Bagdikian, a Post editor, had obtained portions of the papers from Ellsberg. That day the Post received a call from the Assistant Attorney General, William Rehnquist, asking them to stop publishing. When the Post refused, the U.S. Justice Department sought another injunction. The U.S. District court judge refused, and the government appealed. On June 26, 1971 the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to take both cases, merging them into New York Times Co. v. United States 403 US 713. On June 30, 1971, the Supreme Court held in a 6–3 decision that the injunctions were unconstitutional prior restraints and that the government had not met the burden of proof required. The justices wrote nine separate opinions, disagreeing on significant substantive issues. While it was generally seen as a victory for those who claim the First Amendment enshrines an absolute right to free speech, many felt it a lukewarm victory, offering little protection for future publishers when claims of national security were at stake.