Monday, November 24, 2014

Chiung Yao or Qiong Yao or Chen Ji (Famous Taiwan Romance Writer)

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chiung Yao
瓊瑤
Born Chen Che
陳喆
April 20, 1938 (age 76)
Chengdu, Sichuan, Republic of China
Occupation Novelist, screenwriter, producer and lyricist
Nationality  Republic of China
Citizenship  Republic of China
Education Taipei Municipal Zhong Shan Girls High School
Spouse Ping Xintao (1979–present)
Children son Chen Zhongwei (from a previous marriage)
Chiung Yao (simplified Chinese: 琼瑶; traditional Chinese: 瓊瑤; pinyin: Qióng Yáo; Wade–Giles: Chiung Yao; born Chen Zhe 陳喆 on April 20, 1938 in Sichuan, Republic of China) is the pen name of a popular romance novelist based in Taiwan. Many of her works have been made and remade into movies and TV series. Films based on her books have been made in the Republic of China (Taiwan) since the 1970s, and were very popular during their time. They often featured Brigitte Lin, Lin Feng-jiao, Charlie Chin and/or Chin Han, who were then collectively known as the "Two Lins and Two Chins".
In the 1990s, TV series adapted from her works continued to be watched in Taiwan and sometimes, in Mainland China. Huan Zhu Ge Ge, or My Fair Princess in English, is the best-known and popular of her recent novels, owing to the popularity of the 1998-1999 TV series.

Life

Both her father (陳致平) and mother (袁行恕) received a good education. She was born in Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan province. In 1949, along with her family, she moved to Taiwan, where she attended 臺北師範附小 and Taipei Municipal Zhong Shan Girls High School (臺北市立中山女子高級中學). At the age of 16, she published her first novel. During high school she had published over 200 articles. After graduation from high school and failure to enter college, she got married and became a housewife, and at the same time started her writing career. Her first novel, still often read today, is Chuangwai ("Outside the Window").
Chiung Yao's romance novels were very well received in Taiwan when they were first published, and by the 1990s she was also one of the best-selling authors on the mainland.[1] Her novels feature women who would go through years of intense psychological suffering for the sake of love, with male leads who are often weaker than the female protagonists. Often the novels are set in the early Republican era, when family dictums were feudalistic and chauvinistic. My Fair Princess is the first of her many novels which ended happily for her female protagonists.
However her romance novels have also been criticized for their melodramatic plotlines and extremely longwinded dialogues[by whom?].

Works

  • 窗外 (1963)
  • 幸運草 (1964)
  • 六個夢 (1966)
  • 煙雨濛濛 (Romance in the Rain) (1964)
  • 菟絲花 (1964)
  • 幾度夕陽紅 (1966)
  • 潮聲 (1966)
  • 船 (1966)
  • 紫貝殼 (1966)
  • 寒煙翠 (1966)
  • 月滿西樓 (1967)
  • 翦翦風 (1967)
  • 彩雲飛 (1968) — adapted into the 1973 film The Young Ones
  • 庭院深深 (1969)
  • 星河 (1969)
  • 水靈 (1971)
  • 白狐 (1971)
  • 海鷗飛處 (1972)
  • 心有千千結 (1973)
  • 一簾幽夢 (Dreams Link) (1974)
  • 浪花 (1974)
  • 碧雲天 (1974)
  • 女朋友 (1975)
  • 在水一方 (1975) — adapted into the 1975 film, The Unforgettable Character
  • 秋歌 (1976)
  • 人在天涯 (1976)
  • 我是一片雲 (1976)
  • 月朦朧鳥矇矓 (1977)
  • 雁兒在林梢 (1977) — adapted into the 1979 film, The Wild Goose on the Wing
  • 一顆紅豆 (1978)
  • 彩霞滿天 (1979)
  • 金盞花 (1979)
  • 夢的衣裳 (1980)
  • 聚散兩依依 (1980)
  • 卻上心頭 (1981)
  • 問斜陽 (1981)
  • 燃燒吧﹗ 火鳥 (1981)
  • 昨夜之燈 (1982)
  • 匆匆﹐ 太匆匆 (1982)
  • 失火的天堂 (1984)
  • 我的故事 (1989)
  • 冰兒 (1968)
  • 剪不斷的鄉愁 (1989)
  • 雪珂 (1990)
  • 望夫崖 (1991)
  • 青青河邊草 (1992)
  • 梅花烙 (1993)
  • 鬼丈夫 (1993)
  • 水雲間 (1993)
  • 新月格格 (1994)
  • 煙鎖重樓 (1994)
  • 還珠格格 (My Fair Princess I) 《三之一》 陰錯陽差 (1997)
  • 還珠格格 《三之二》 水深火熱 (1997)
  • 還珠格格 《三之三》 真相大白 (1997)
  • 蒼天有淚《三之一》 無語問蒼天 (1997)
  • 蒼天有淚《三之二》 愛恨千千萬 (1997)
  • 蒼天有淚《三之三》 人間有天堂 (1997)
  • 還珠格格第二部《五之一》風雲再起 (1998)
  • 還珠格格第二部《五之二》生死相許 (1998)
  • 還珠格格第二部《五之三》悲喜重重 (1998)
  • 還珠格格第二部《五之四》浪跡天涯 (1998)
  • 還珠格格第二部《五之五》紅塵作伴 (1998)
  • 還珠格格第三部《三之一》天上人間 (2002)
  • 還珠格格第三部《三之二》天上人間 (2002)
  • 還珠格格第三部《三之三》天上人間 (2002)

Monday, November 3, 2014

The New York Times

 

 
 
 
 
 
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"NYT" redirects here. For the theatrical organization also known as NYT, see National Youth Theatre.
The New York Times
NYT Masthead.svg
New York Times 8-07-1945 Rare City Edition.jpg
A rare front page copy of "The New York Times" city edition dated August 7, 1945, featuring the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, Japan. The visual chart on the right portion below the headline illustrating the atomic bomb's destructive power was omitted in the late city edition.
Type Daily newspaper
Format Broadsheet
Owner(s) The New York Times Company
Founder(s) Henry Jarvis Raymond
George Jones
Publisher Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.
Editor Dean Baquet
Managing editors John M. Geddes
News editor Richard L. Berke
Opinion editor Andrew Rosenthal
Sports editor Tom Jolly
Photo editor Michele McNally
Staff writers 1,150 news department staff [1]
Founded 1851
Headquarters The New York Times Building
620 Eighth Avenue
New York City, United States
Circulation 1,865,315 daily
(incl. 1,133,923 digital)[2]
ISSN 0362-4331
OCLC number 1645522
Official website www.nytimes.com
The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by The New York Times Company. It has won 114 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other news organization.[3][4]
The paper's print version remains the largest metropolitan newspaper in the United States and second-largest newspaper overall, behind The Wall Street Journal. It is ranked 39th in the world by circulation. Following industry trends, its weekday circulation has fallen to fewer than one million daily since 1990.[5] Nicknamed for years as "The Gray Lady", The New York Times is long regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record".[6] It is owned by The New York Times Company. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr., (whose family (Ochs-Sulzberger) has controlled the paper for five generations, since 1896), is both the paper's publisher and the company's chairman.[7] Its international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the International New York Times.
The paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Its website has adapted it to "All the News That's Fit to Click".[8] Since the mid-1970s, it has greatly expanded its lay-out and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials, sports and features. Recently it has been organized into sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/"Op-Ed", "New York" (metropolitan), "Business", "Sports of The Times", "Arts", "Science", "Styles", "Home", and other features. On Sunday, it is supplemented by sections of "The Week in Review", "The New York Times Book Review" and "The New York Times Magazine" and recently "T", the Style magazine. "The Times" stayed with the "broadsheet" full page set-up (as some others have changed into a tabloid lay-out) and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, and was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography, especially on the front page.

History

First published issue of "The New York Daily Times", on September 18, 1851.
"The New York Times" was founded as the "New-York Daily Times" on September 18, 1851, by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond, (1820-1869), then a Whig Party member and later second chairman of the newly organized Republican Party National Committee, and former banker George Jones. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release:[9]
We shall be "Conservative", in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good;—and we shall be Radical in everything which may seem to us to require radical treatment and radical reform. We do not believe that "everything" in Society is either exactly right or exactly wrong;—what is good we desire to preserve and improve;—what is evil, to exterminate, or reform.
The newspaper shortened its name to "The New-York Times" in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s.[10] On April 21, 1861, "The New York Times" departed from its original Monday–Saturday publishing schedule and joined other major dailies in adding a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone.[11]
The main office of "The Times" was attacked during the New York Draft Riots sparked by the beginning of military conscription for the Northern Union Army now instituted in the midst of the Civil War on July 13, 1863. At "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond, owner and editor of "The New York Times", averted the rioters with "Gatling" (early machine, rapid-firing) guns, one of which he manned himself. The mob now diverted, instead attacked the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's "New York Tribune" until forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.[12]
The Times Square Building, "The New York Times" '​ publishing headquarters, 1913-2007
The newspaper's influence grew during 1870-71 when it published a series of exposés on William Magear ("Boss") Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" (from its early 19th Century meeting headquarters) — that led to the end of the "Tweed Ring's" domination of New York's City Hall.[13] In the 1880s, "The New York Times" transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical; in 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland (former Mayor of Buffalo and Governor of New York State in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost "The Times"  '​ readership among its more conservative, business-oriented, upper-class readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years and slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under its new later owner/publisher's philosophies, Adolph Ochs of Chattanooga, Tennessee.[14] "The New York Times" was acquired by Adolph Ochs, publisher of the "Chattanooga Times", in 1896. The following year, he coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print", which was printed in a box in the upper right hand corner of the front page for the next 120 years;[14] this was a jab at competing papers such as Joseph Pulitzer's "New York World" and William Randolph Hearst's "New York Journal" which were now being known for a lurid, sensationalist and often inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions known by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs guidance, continuing and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, (which were from the era of James Gordon Bennett of the "New York Herald" which predated Pulitzer and Hearst's arrival in New York), "The New York Times" achieved international scope, circulation, and reputation. In 1904, "The Times" received the first on-the-spot wireless telegraph transmission from a naval battle, a report of the destruction of the Imperial Russian Navy's Baltic Fleet at the Battle of Port Arthur in the Straits of Tsushima off the eastern coast of Korea in the Yellow Sea in the western Pacific Ocean after just sailing across the globe from Europe from the press-boat "Haimun" during the Russo-Japanese War (one of the most important and history-changing naval battles in history). In 1910, the first air delivery of "The New York Times" to Philadelphia began.[14] The New York Times  '​ first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible. In 1920, a "4 A.M. Airplane Edition" was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening.[15]
The front page of The New York Times on July 29, 1914, announcing Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia
In the 1940s, the paper extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the fashion section in 1946. The New York Times began an international edition in 1946. The international edition stopped publishing in 1967, when The New York Times joined the owners of the New York Herald Tribune and The Washington Post to publish the International Herald Tribune in Paris. The paper bought a classical radio station (WQXR) in 1946.[16] In addition to owning WQXR, the newspaper also formerly owned its AM sister, WQEW (1560 AM).[17] The classical music radio format was simulcast on both frequencies until the early 1990s, when the big-band and standards music format of WNEW-AM (now WBBR) moved from 1130 AM to 1560. The AM radio station changed its call letters from WQXR to WQEW.[18] By the beginning of the 21st century, The New York Times was leasing WQEW to ABC Radio for its Radio Disney format, which continues on 1560 AM. Disney became the owner of WQEW in 2007.[17] On July 14, 2009, it was announced that WQXR was to be sold to WNYC, who on October 8, 2009, moved the station to 105.9 FM and began to operate the station as a non-commercial.[19]
The New York Times newsroom, 1942
A speech in the newsroom after announcement of Pulitzer Prize winners, 2009
The New York Times is third in national circulation, after USA Today and The Wall Street Journal.[20] The newspaper is owned by The New York Times Company, in which descendants of Adolph Ochs, principally the Sulzberger family, maintain a dominant role. In 2009, article circulation dropped 7.3 percent to about 928,000; this is the first time since the 1980s that it has fallen under one million.[5]As of December 26, 2010[dead link], the paper reported a circulation of 906,100 copies on weekdays and 1,356,800 copies on Sundays.[21] In the New York City metropolitan area, the paper costs $2.50 Monday through Saturday and $5 on Sunday. The New York Times has won 112 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper.[22]
In 2009, the newspaper began production of local inserts in regions outside of the New York area. Beginning October 16, 2009, a two-page "Bay Area" insert was added to copies of the Northern California edition on Fridays and Sundays. The newspaper commenced production of a similar Friday and Sunday insert to the Chicago edition on November 20, 2009. The inserts consist of local news, policy, sports, and culture pieces, usually supported by local advertisements.
In addition to its New York City headquarters, the newspaper has 10 news bureaus in the New York region, 11 national news bureaus and 26 foreign news bureaus.[21] The New York Times reduced its page width to 12 inches (300 mm) from 13.5 inches (340 mm) on August 6, 2007, adopting the width that has become the U.S. newspaper industry standard.[23]
Because of its steadily declining sales attributed to the rise of online alternative media and social media, the newspaper has been going through a downsizing for several years, offering buyouts to workers and cutting expenses,[24] in common with a general trend among print news media.
The newspaper's first building was located at 113 Nassau Street in New York City. In 1854, it moved to 138 Nassau Street, and in 1858, it moved to 41 Park Row, making it the first newspaper in New York City housed in a building built specifically for its use.[25]
The paper moved its headquarters to the Times Tower, located at 1475 Broadway in 1904, in an area called Longacre Square, that was later renamed Times Square in honor of the newspaper. The top of the building – now known as One Times Square – is the site of the New Year's Eve tradition of lowering a lighted ball, that was started by the paper. The building is also notable for its electronic news ticker – popularly known as "The Zipper" – where headlines crawled around the outside of the building. It is still in use, but is now operated by the Reuters news agency. After nine years in its Times Square tower, the newspaper had an Annex built at 229 West 43rd Street. After several expansions, the 43rd Street building became the newspaper's main headquarters in 1960 and the Times Tower on Broadway was sold the following year. It served as the newspaper's main printing plant until 1997, when the newspaper opened a state-of-the-art printing plant in the College Point section of the borough of Queens.
A decade later, The New York Times moved its newsroom and businesses headquarters from West 43rd Street to a gleaming new tower at 620 Eighth Avenue between West 40th and 41st Streets, in Manhattan – directly across Eighth Avenue from the Port Authority Bus Terminal. The new headquarters for the newspaper, known officially as The New York Times Building but unofficially called the new "Times Tower" by many New Yorkers, is a skyscraper designed by Renzo Piano.[26][27]

New York Times v. Sullivan

The paper's involvement in a 1964 libel case helped bring one of the key United States Supreme Court decisions supporting freedom of the press, New York Times Co. v. Sullivan. In it, the United States Supreme Court established the "actual malice" standard for press reports about public officials or public figures to be considered defamatory or libelous. The malice standard requires the plaintiff in a defamation or libel case prove the publisher of the statement knew the statement was false or acted in reckless disregard of its truth or falsity. Because of the high burden of proof on the plaintiff, and difficulty in proving what is inside a person's head, such cases by public figures rarely succeed.[28]

The Pentagon Papers

Main article: Pentagon Papers
In 1971, the Pentagon Papers, a secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political and military involvement in the Vietnam War from 1945 to 1967, were given ("leaked") to Neil Sheehan of The New York Times by former State Department official Daniel Ellsberg, with his friend Anthony Russo assisting in copying them. The New York Times began publishing excerpts as a series of articles on June 13. Controversy and lawsuits followed. The papers revealed, among other things, that the government had deliberately expanded its role in the war by conducting air strikes over Laos, raids along the coast of North Vietnam, and offensive actions taken by U.S. Marines well before the public was told about the actions, all while President Lyndon B. Johnson had been promising not to expand the war. The document increased the credibility gap for the U.S. government, and hurt efforts by the Nixon administration to fight the on-going war.[29]
When The New York Times began publishing its series, President Richard Nixon became incensed. His words to National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger included "People have gotta be put to the torch for this sort of thing..." and "Let's get the son-of-a-bitch in jail."[30] After failing to get The New York Times to stop publishing, Attorney General John Mitchell and President Nixon obtained a federal court injunction that The New York Times cease publication of excerpts. The newspaper appealed and the case began working through the court system. On June 18, 1971, The Washington Post began publishing its own series. Ben Bagdikian, a Post editor, had obtained portions of the papers from Ellsberg. That day the Post received a call from the Assistant Attorney General, William Rehnquist, asking them to stop publishing. When the Post refused, the U.S. Justice Department sought another injunction. The U.S. District court judge refused, and the government appealed. On June 26, 1971 the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to take both cases, merging them into New York Times Co. v. United States 403 US 713. On June 30, 1971, the Supreme Court held in a 6–3 decision that the injunctions were unconstitutional prior restraints and that the government had not met the burden of proof required. The justices wrote nine separate opinions, disagreeing on significant substantive issues. While it was generally seen as a victory for those who claim the First Amendment enshrines an absolute right to free speech, many felt it a lukewarm victory, offering little protection for future publishers when claims of national security were at stake.[29]